국제해운회의소(International Chamber of Shipping, ICS)는 2014년 7월 1일부터 적용되는 IMO의 새로운 해상인명안전협약(SOLAS) 규제에 대한 가이드라인을 마련했다고 밝혔다.
IMO의 'SOLAS Regulation III/17-1’에 따르면, 모든 선박은 해상인명구조를 위한 구체적인 계획 및 절차를 확보해야 한다. 동 규제는 7월 1일 이후 건조계약되는 500gt 이상의 신조선 뿐 아니라 현존선에도 모두 적용되며 ‘SOLAS Regulation III/26/4’가 적용되는 로로 여객선은 제외된다.
이에 따라 모든 선박은 구조장비와 승선자의 위험을 최소화하는 방법을 확인할 수 있는 구체적인 계획과 절차를 개발하는 것이 요구된다. 새로운 SOLAS 규제는 해상 안전을 강화하게 되며 모든 형태의 구조 운영에 있어서 수색 및 구조(SAR) 코디네이터들을 지원하게 된다.
ICS의 가이드라인은 선주와 운항자들이 동 규제에 따라 필요한 계획과 절차를 개발할 때 참고할 만한 전체적인 틀을 제시하고 있다. 각 회사들의 잠재적인 구조운영전략의 문서화 방안에 대한 예시도 나와 있다. ICS 측은 “선박의 구체적인 계획과 절차는 새로운 것이지만, 일단 문서화되면 안전경영시스템(Safety Management System)의 일환이 될 것”이라고 전했다.
동 규제에 따른 선박의 구조계획 및 절차는 ‘해상인명 구조를 위한 계획 및 절차의 개발을 위한 IMO의 가이드라인(MSC.1/Circ.1447)을 참고할 수 있다. 그 밖에도 ‘구조 테크닉 가이드(MSC.1/Circ.1182)’, ‘차가운 해수에서의 생존 가이드(MSC.1/Circ.1185/Rev.1)’를 참조할 수 있다. 해상인명구조 계획 및 절차 개발을 위한 ICS 가이드라인의 내용을 원문 그대로 게재한다.
Recovery of Persons from the Water
Guidelines for THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS AND PROCEDURES
From July 2014, all ships are required by new IMO regulations (SOLAS Regulation III/I7-1) to have ship-specific plans and procedures for the recovery of persons from the water. The plans and procedures must identify the equipment intended to be used for recovery purposes and measures to be taken to minimise the risk to shipboard personnel involved in recovery operations. (Ro-ro passenger ships which comply with SOLAS Regulation III/26.4 are deemed by IMO to comply with this new regulation.)
In the majority of cases, the carriage of additional dedicated equipment will probably be unnecessary.
These ICS Guidelines have been developed to assist companies when preparing to comply with the new SOLAS Regulation III/17-1 and should be used together with the IMO Guidelines for the Development of Plans and Procedures for the Recovery of Persons from the Water (MSC.1/Circ.1447), the Guide to Recovery Techniques (MSC.1/Circ.1182) and the Guide for Cold Water Survival (MSC.1/Circ.1185/Rev.1).
Development of Plans and Procedures for the Recovery of Persons from the Sea
1. Identify each ship’s Life Saving Appliances or other equipment
To assist in the development of plans and procedures, existing on board equipment should be identified which may be used to recover persons from the water. Although other equipment may also be identified as being useful for recovering persons from the water, the following are examples that might be considered (if fitted or carried):
-Rescue boats; -Shell openings (such as pilot or bunker doors);
-Pilot ladders; -Accommodation ladders;
-Marine Evacuation Systems; -First aid equipment;
-Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
2.Conduct suitability and risk assessments for the identified equipment
The suitability of each identified equipment should be evaluated, bearing in mind the anticipated operating conditions and ship.specific characteristics, including:
-Manoeuverability of the ship; -Freeboard;
-Recovery issues; -Available manpower;
-Limitations and characteristics of ship’s equipment; -vailable PPE;
-Wind force, direction and effect of spray; -ignificant wave height;
-Period of waves; -Swell conditions; and
-Safety of navigation.
Following a determination of suitability, a risk assessment should be conducted for the use of the identified equipment suitable for recovery of persons from the water.
When evaluating the risks associated with identified equipment, it may be useful to establish a ‘risk level’ or ‘risk factor’ by categorising the likelihood of harm occurring and the potential severity of harm (see example below).
3. Determine if additional equipment or specialised equipment will be required
The results of the risk assessment for the identified equipment will allow a judgement to be made on whether additional or specified equipment will be required. In the majority of cases, the carriage of additional dedicated equipment will probably be unnecessary.
4. Develop plans and procedures and consider mitigating measures
The plans and procedures should be developed for the equipment identified by the review and assessment stages. Any mitigating measures should be considered and the plans and procedures should address:
-Hazards/risks related to the specific operation;
-Allocation of duties and responsibilities on board;
-Actions to be taken in case the situation changes;
-Procedures for requesting assistance from third parties;
-Procedures for notifying the Company and reporting to authorities;
-Liaison with shore authorities and the Company, as appropriate;
-Minimising the risk of injury from impact with the ship’s side, other appliances or recovery equipment;
-A source of illumination and, if required, power should be available for the recovery area;
-Specific operational parameters where recovery operations can be completed safely should be set; and
-If carried, dedicated recovery equipment should be clearly marked with the maximum number of persons it can accommodate, based on a weight of 82.5kg per person.
Training and Drills
The Company should ensure that crew are familiar with the developed plans and the specified equipment, and documentary evidence should be maintained.
Drills should ensure that the crew are familiar with the plans and procedures.
Integration with the Safety Management System
The plans and procedures should be considered as part of the emergency preparedness plan required by Paragraph 8 of Part A of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code.
Example Plan and Procedure
There are many scenarios which might require the vessel to attempt recovery of a person from the water, ranging from assisting a vessel in distress to responding to a person overboard incident.
On board procedures Describe initial response to an incident:
-Bridge response; 쪾Vessel alarm/muster procedures; and
-Ensuring vessel is ready for manoeuvring.
The initiation or continuation of the ship’s recovery operations
should be at the discretion of the Master of the recovering ship
Equipment List of specified equipment for recovery operations identified by the Company.
This should include the ship’s equipment identified and assessed for recovery operations, examples might include:
-Rescue boat; -Lifeboat and liferaft; -First aid party equipment; and -Lifebuoy and line.
Roles and responsibilities for those involved in a recovery operation
This should include details on Bridge Team arrangement, person in charge on deck, designated boat crew, designated communications personnel and first aid party.
Communications requirements This should include procedures to contact shore authorities and the Designated Person Ashore (DPA), as required by the ISM Code.
Safety parameters The safety parameters and any mitigating measures identified or established during the development of plans should be clearly stated, such as:
-Safety of own crew; -Wind force; -Swell; -Visibility;
-Risk to own vessel; and -Any other factors.
Advice should be considered and included for the management of events after any recovery of persons from the water. This could include initial first aid, ongoing care considerations, and recommendations for consequent arrangements with shore or other rescue vessels for medical evacuation.